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The Mind and its Education

The Mind and its Education

  • SKU: IDK383
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  • Publishers: Kaveri Books
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  • Dimensions:9.0' X 5.7'
  • Edition:2008
  • Author:George Herbert Betts
  • Publisher:Kaveri Books
  • ISBN:9788174790859
  • Cover Type:Hardcover
  • Number of Pages:328 (20 B/W Illustration)
  • Preface

    Authors, no doubt, are always gratified when their works find favorable acceptance. The writer of this text has been doubly gratified, however at the cordial reception and widespread use accorded to the present volume. This feeling does not arise from any narrow personal pride or selfish interest, but rather from te fact that the warm approval of the educational public has proved an important point; namely, that the fundamental truths of psychology, when put simply and concretely, can be made of interest and value to students of all ages from high school juniors up, and to the general public as well. More encouraging still, it has been demonstrated that the teachings of psychology can become immediately helpful, not only I study or teaching, but also in business or profession, in the control and guidance of the personal life, and in the problems met in the routine of the day's or its play.

    In effecting the present revision, the salient features of the original edition have been kept. The truths presented are the most fundamental and important in the field of psychology. Disputed theories and unsettled opinions are excluded. The subject matter is made concrete and practical by the use of many illustrations and through application to real problems. The style has been kept easy and familiar to facilitate the reading. In short, there has been, while seeking to improve the volume, a conscious purpose to omit none of the characteristics which secure acceptance for the former edition.

    On the other hand, certain changes and additions have been made which, it is believed, will add to the strength of the work. First of all, the later psychological studies and investigations have been drawn upon to insure that the matter shall at all points be abreast of the times in scientific accuracy. Because of the wide use of the text in the training of teachers, a more specific educational application to schools room problems has been made in various chapters. Exercises for the guidance of observation work personal introspection are freely used. The Chapter on Sensation and Perception has been separated into two chapters, and each subject given more extensive treatment. A new chapter has been added on Association. The various chapters have been subdivided into numbered sections, and cut-in paragraph topics have been used to facilitate the study and teaching of the text. Minor changes and additions occur throughout the volume, thus adding some forty pages to the number in the original edition.

    Many of the modifications made in the revision are due to valuable suggestions and kindly criticisms received from many teachers of the text in various types of schools. To all who have thus helped so generously by freely giving the author the fruits of their judgment and experience he gladly renders grateful thanks.

    From the Jacket

    This book is a study of mind and its education. It is easy to understand how we may investigate the great world of material things about us; for we can see it, touch it, weight it, or measure it. But how are we to discover the nature of mind, or come to know the process by which consciousness works? For mind is intangible, we cannot see it, feel ir or hands it. Mind belongs not to the realm of matter which is known to the senses, but to the realm of spirit, which the senses can never grasp. And yet the mind can be known and studied as truly and as scientifically as can the world of matter.

    The subject matter of this book is made concrete and practical by the use of several illustrations and through application to real problems. The style has been kept easy and familiar to facilitate the reading and hope that the book would be of interest and value to students of all ages and to the general public as well.

    Chapter I
    The Mind, or Consciousness
    1. How the mind is to be known: Personal character of consciousness – Introspection the only means of discovering nature of consciousness – How we introspect – Studying mental states of others through expression – Learning to interpret expression.
    2. The nature of consciousness: Inner nature of the mind not revealed by introspection – Consciousness as a process or stream – Consciousness likened to a field – The ''piling up'' of consciousness is attention.
    3. Content of the mental stream: Why we need minds – Content of consciousness determined by function – Three fundamental phases of consciousness.
    4. Where consciousness resides: Consciousness works through the nervous system.
    5. Problems in observation and introspection     . 1-14
    Chapter II
    1. Nature of attention: The nature of attention – Normal consciousness always in a state of attention
    2. The effects of attention: Attention makes its object clear and definite – Attention measures mental efficiency.
    3. How we attend: Attention a relating activity – The rhythms of attention
    4. Points of failure in attention: Lack of concentration – Mental wandering.
    5. Types of attention: The three types of attention – Interest and non-voluntary attention – the will and voluntary attention – Not really different kinds of attention.
    6. Improving the Power of attention: Making different kinds of attention reinforce each other – The habit of attention.
    7. Problems in observation and Introspection    .: 15-29
    Chapter III
    The Brain and Nervous System
    1. The relations of mind and brain: Interaction of ind and brain – The brain us the mind's machine
    2. The mind's dependence on the external world: The mind at birth – The work of the senses
    3. Structural elements of the nervous system: The neuron – Neuron fibers – Neuralgia – Complexity of the brain – ''Gray'' and ''white'' matter.
    4. Gross structure of the nervous system: Divisions of the nervous system – the central system – The cerebellum – The cerebrum – The cortex – The spinal cord.
    5. Localization of function in the nervous system: Division of labor – Division of labor in the cortex.
    6. Forms of sensory stimuli: The end-organs and their response to stimuli – Dependence of the mind on the senses. 30-49
    Chapter IV
    Mental Development and Motor Training
    1. Factors determining the efficiency of the nervous system: Development and nutrition – Undeveloped cells – Development of nerve fibers.
    2. Development of nervous system through ues: Importance of stimulus and response – Effects of sensory stimuli – Necessity for motor activity – Development of the association centres – The factors involved in a simple action
    3. Education and the training of the nervous system: Education to supply opportunities for stimulus and response – order of development in the nervous system
    4. Importance of health and vigor of the nervous system : The influences of fatigue – The effects of worry the factors in good nutrition.
    5. Problems for introspection and observation   ..: 50-65
    Chapter V
    1. The nature of habit: The physical basis of habit – All living tissue plastic – Habit a modification of brain tissue – We must from habits.
    2. The place of habit in the economy of our lives: Habit increases skill and efficiency – Habit saves effort and fatigue – Habit economizes moral effect – The habit of attention – habit enables us to meet the disagreeable - Habit the foundation of personality – Habit saves worry and rebellion
    3. The tyranny of habit: Even good habits need to be modified – The tendency of ''ruts''.
    4. Habit-forming a part of education : Youth the time for habit forming – The habit of achievement.
    5. Rules for habit-forming: James's three maxims for habit-forming – The preponderance of good habits over bad
    6. Problems is observation and Introspection 66-83
    Chapter VI
    1. How we come to know the external world: Knowledge through the senses – The unity of sensory experience – The sensory processes to be explained – The qualities of objects exist in the mind – The three sets of factors.
    2. The nature of sensation: Sensation gives us our world of qualities – The attributes of sensation.
    3. Sensory qualities and their and organs: Sight Hearing – Taste – Smell – Various sensations from the skin – The kinesthetic senses – The organic senses.
    4. Problems in observation and retrospection    .. 84-97
    Chapter VII
    1. The function of perception: Need of knowing the material world – The problem which confronts the child.
    2. The nature of perception: How a percept is formed – The percept involves all relations of the object – The content of the percept – The accuracy of percepts depends on experience – Not definitions, but first-hand contact.
    3. The perception of time: The perceiving of distance – The perceiving of direction.
    4. The perception of time: Nature of the time sense – No perception of empty time.
    5. The training of perception: Perception needs to be trained – School training in perception.
    6. Problems in observation and introspection    98-111
    Chapter VIII
    Mental Images and Ideas
    1. The part played by past experience: Present thinking depends on past experience – The present interpreted by the past – The future also depends on the past – Rank determined by ability to utilize past experience.
    2. How past experience is conserved: Past experience conserved in both mental and physical terms – The image and the idea – All our past experience potentially at our command.
    3. Individual differences in imagery: Images to be viewed by introspection – The varied imagery suggested by one's dining table – Power of imagery varies in different people – Imagery types.
    4. The function of images: Images supply material for imagination and memory – Imagery in the thought processes – The use of imagery in literature – Points where images are of greatest service.
    5. The cultivation of imagery: Images depend on sensory stimuli – The influence of frequent recall – The reconstruction of our images.
    6. Problems in introspection and observation    111-126
    Chapter IX
    1. The place of imagination in mental economy: Practical natureof imagination – Imagination in the interpretation of history, literature, and art – Imagination and science – Everyday uses of imagination – The building of ideals and plans – Imagination and conduct – Imagination and thinking.
    2. The material used by imagination: Images the stuff of imagination – The two factors in imagination – Imagination limited by stock of images – Limited also by our constructive ability – The need of a purpose.
    3. Types of imagination: Reproductive imagination – Creative imagination.
    4. Training the imagination: Gathering of material for imagination – We must not fail to build – We should carry our ideals into action.
    5. Problems for observation and introspection    127-143
    Chapter X
    1. The nature of association: The neural basis of association – Association the basis of memory – Factors determining direction recall – Association in thinking – Association and action.
    2. The types of association: Fundamental law of association – Association by contiguity – At the mercy of our associations – Association by similarity and contrast – Partial, or selective, association – The remedy.
    3. Training in association: The pleasure pain motive in association – Interest as a basis for association – Association and methods of learning .
    4. Problems in observation and introspection    144-159
    Chapter XI
    1. The nature of memory: What is retained – The physical basis of memory – How we remember – Dependence of memory on brain quality.
    2. The four factors involved in memory: Registration – Retention – Recall - Recognition
    3. The Stuff of memory: Images as the material of memory – Images vary as to type – Other memory material.
    4. Laws underlying memory: The law of association – The law of repetition – The law of decency – The law of vividness.
    5. Rules for using the memory: Wholes versus parts – Rate of forgetting – Divided practice – Forcing the memory to act – Not a memory, but memories.
    6. What constitutes a good memory: A good memory selects its material – A good memory requires good thinking – Memory must be specialized.
    7. Memory devices: The effects of cramming – Remembering isolated facts – Mnemonic devices 8. Problems in observation and introspection. 160-178
    Chapter XII
    1. Different types of thinking: Chance, or idle thinking – Uncritical belief – Assimilative thinking – Deliberative thinking.
    2. The function of thinking: Meaning depends on relations – The function of thinking is to discover relations – Near and remote relations – Child and adult thinking.
    3. The mechanism of thinking: Sensations and percepts as elements in thinking.
    4. The concept: The concepts server to group and classify – Growth of a concept – Definition of concept – Language and the concept – the necessity for growing concepts.
    5. Judgment: Nature of Judgment – Judgment used in percepts and concepts – Judgment leads to general truths – The validity of judgments.
    6. Reasoning: Nature of reasoning – How judgments function in reasoning – Deduction and the syllogism – Induction – The necessity for broad induction – The interrelation of induction and deduction.
    7. Problems in observation and introspection    .. 179-200
    Chapter XIII
    1. The nature of instinct: The babe's dependence on instinct – Definition of instinct – Instinct are racial habits – Unmodified instinct is blind.
    2. Law of the appearance and disappearance of Instinct: Instinct appear in succession as required – Many instinct are transitory – Seemingly useless instincts Instinct to be utilized when they appear – Instinct as starting point – The more important human instincts.
    3. The instinct of imitation: Nature of imitation – Individuality in imitation – Conscious and unconscious imitation – Influence of environment – The influence of personality.
    4. The instinct of play: The necessity for play – Play in development and education – Work and play are complements.
    5. Other useful instincts: Curiosity – Manipulation – The collecting instinct – The dramatic instinct – The impulse to form gangs and clubs.
    6. Fear: Fear heredity – For of the dark – Fear of being left alone.
    7. Other undesirable instincts: Selfishness – Pugnacity, or the fighting impulse. 179-200
    8. Problems in observation and introspection     . 201-225
    Chapter XIV
    Feeling and its functions
    1. The nature of feeling: The different feeling qualities – Feeling always present in mental content – The seeming neutral feeling zone.
    2. Mood and disposition: How mood is produced – Mood colors all our thinking – Mood influences our judgement and decisions- Mood influences effort – Disposition a resultant of moods – Temperament.
    3. Permanent feeling attitudes, or sentiments : How sentiments develop – The effect of experience – The influence of sentiment – Sentiments as motives.
    4. Problems in observation and introspection    .. 226-238
    Chapter XV
    The Emotions
    1. The producing and expressing of emotion: Physiological explanation of emotion – Origin of characteristic emotional reactions – The duration of an emotion – Emotions accompanying crises in experience.
    2. The control of emotions: Dependence on expression – Relief through expression – Relief does not follow if image is held before the mind – Growing tendency toward emotional control.
    3. Cultivation of the Emotions: The emotions and enjoyment – How emotions develop – The emotional factor in our environment – Literature and the cultivation of the emotions – Harm in emotional overexcitement .
    4. Emotions as motives: How our emotions compel us – Emotional habits.
    5. Problems in observation and introspection    .. 239-253
    Chapter XVI
    1. The nature of interest: Interest a selective agent – Interest supplies a subjective scale of values – Interest dynamic – Habit antagonistic to interest.
    2. Direct and indirect interest: Interest in the end versus interest in the activity – Indirect interest as a motive – Indirect interest alone insufficient.
    3. Transitoriness of certain interests: Interests must be utilized when they appear – The value of a strong interest.
    4. Selection among our interests: The mistake of following too many interests – Interests may be too narrow – Specialization should not come too early – A proper balance to be sought.
    5. Interest fundamental in education: Interest not antagonistic to effort – Interest and character.
    6. Order of development of our interests: The interests of early childhood- The interests of later childhood – The interests of adolescence.
    7. Problems in observation and introspection    .. 254-270
    Chapter XVII
    The Will
    1. The nature of the will: The content of the will – The function of the will – How the will exerts its compulsion.
    2. The extent of voluntary control over our acts: Classes of acts or response – Simple reflex acts – Instinctive acts – Automatic, or spontaneous acts – The cycle from volitional to automatic – Volitional action – Volition acts in the making of decisions – Types of decision – The reasonable type – Accidental type: External motives – Accidental type: Subjective motives – Decision under effort.
    3. Strong and weak wills: Not a will, but wills – Objective texts a false measure of will power.
    4. Volitional types: The impulsive type – The obstructed will – The normal will.
    5. Training the will: Will to be trained in common round of duties – School work and will – training.
    6. Freedom of the will, or the extent of its control: Limitations of will – These limitations and conditions of freedom.
    7. Problems in observation and introspection    .. 271-283
    Chapter XVIII
    Self-Expression and Development
    1. Interrelation of impression and expression: The many sources of impressions – All impressions lead toward expression – Limitations of expression.
    2. The place of expression in development: Intellectual value of expression – Moral value of expression – Religious value of expression – Social value of expression.
    3. Educational use of expression: Easier to provide for the impression side of education – The school to take up the handicrafts – Expression and character – Two lines of development.
    4. Problems in introspection and observation    .. 294-306
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