This book presents a systematic presentation of post-Samkara dialectics ofthe Advaita Vedanta. Advaita-Vedantamay be studied purely from a religiousstandpoint as an intuitive principle ofrealisation as well as conceptual dialectics. In the former aspect, it unfoldsto us the highest art of life, brings solacein affliction and holds out a promise ofself realisation and transcendental bliss.It is also a science of thinking, aboundingin philosophic boldness and in this respect it has exhibited the keenest logicalsubtletics and is on the same footing withthe Science of Reasoning. Advaitismin its later development has become thepyramid of conceptual construction.Contributions of Sriharsa, Citsukhaand Madhusudana, open a new era in thedomain of the Advaita-Vedanta. Contributions of the Neo-Vedanta teachers havenovel features which originates a new formof dialectology to test the growth ofVedantic concepts and thus make thesystem a living one in Indian Philosophy.The Neo-Vedantic teachers developed atwo fold destructive-constructive aspect-refutation of the oppoents’ thesis and theestablishment of the true Vedanticposition by a refutation of its refutation bythe opponent. The above three mentioned thinkers carried post-Samkaradialectice to the perfection and predominance it has reached in Indian thought.The present volume comparises eightchapters bearing mainly on the epistemology of post-Samkara thought. In thefirst chapter, nature of knowledge hasbeen examined and analysed so as tobring out the problems involved therein.The second chapter deals with the important and unique Indian conception ofself-luminosity of knowledge. The thirdchapter is concerned with the validity ofknowledge, deals mainly with the formidable arguments of the Navya-Nyayaschool as represented by Gangesa in hisTattvacintamani and discusses how theMimansa and Vedanta schools refute thenew-logicians of their own dialectic.In the fourth chapter, Sriharsa famousdialectic in the refutation of the Nyaya-Vaisesika categories has been studied.While the fifth and sixth chapters dealswith Madhusudan’s refutation ofVyasaraja’s arguments against theVedantic conception of the universe asunreal, Epistemology of illusion orAdhyasa has been discussed in the seventhchapter where an attempt has been madeto study the monistic theory of illusionor super imposition in a comparative wayby anlysing different theories of illusionadvanced by the sister schools of IndianPhilosophy. The last chapter deals withNescience or Avidya and the famousanypapattis of Ramanuja and the chargesof Madhava have been examined and aneffort has been made to show how theAdvaita-teachers refute their opponentsby their irresistible dialectices and finallyestablish their own position on the bed-rock of irrefutable logic. In the end thebook contain an index of the words.
In these pages an attempt has been made to give asystematic presentation of post-Sathkara dialectic of theAdvaita Vedanta. The work is substantially based upon mythesis approved for the Degree of Doctorate in Philosophy bythe Calcutta University in 1933.
Advaita-Vedanta may be studied purely from a religiousstandpoint as an intuitive principle of realisation as well asconceptual dialectics. In the former aspect, it unfolds to us thehighest art of life, brings solace in affliction and holds out apromise of self-realisation and transcendental bliss. It is also ascience of thinking, abounding in philosophic boldness and inthis respect it has exhibited the keenest logical subtleties andis on the same footing with the Science of Reasoning. Thoughthe Vedantic teachers render allegiance to the infallibility of theSruti, still, the free natural growth of Philosophic thinking hasnot been checked in the Vedanta literature. Andin the historyof the development of Vedantic concepts, the more we advancethe more we are impressed ''by the diversity of thoughts, thecomplexity of concepts and the subtlety of reasoning. Advaitismin its later development has become the pyramid of conceptualconstruction. Contributions of Sriharsa, Citsukha and Madhustdana, open a new era in the domain of the Advaita-Vedanta andadd a new page in the history of the development of monisticthought. Contributions of the Neo-Vedantic teachers have novelfeatures which originate anew form of dialectology to test thegrowth of Vedantic concepts and thus make the system a livingone in Indian Philosophy.
The main object of the dialectics as developed by theNeo-Vedantic teachers is to carry thought to perfection by acritical examination of the concepts and categories of theopposing sister schools so as to expose their untenability on theground of their inherent contradictions ‘and antinomies. Thispaved the way for the establishment of their own position on asound logical basis which was made stronger still by a furtherdialectical refutation of the charges and criticisms that mightconseivably be levelled by the opponents against their ownposition. The Neo-Vedantic dialectic has thus a twofold destructive-constructive aspeat—refutation of the opponents’ thesis andthe establishment of the true Vedantic position by a refutation ofits refutation by the opponent. In-some teachers, the former, destructive or offensive, aspect is predominant while in othersthere is a harmonious combination of destruction with construction. Madhusiidana in his Advaitasiddhi is mainly pre-occupied with a refutation of Vyasaraja’sNyayamrta almost lineby line and Sriharsa in his Khandanakhandakhadya is more busyin demolishing the Nyaya-Vaisesika categories than in propounding his own thesis. Citsukhaiciryya however in his monumentalTattva-pradipika tries to hold the balance even between these twoaspécts. These three thinkers carry post-Sarhkara dialectic tothe perfection and predominance it has reached in Indianthought. Hence in the present study these three remarkabledialecticians have come in for attention.
**Contents and Sample Pages**