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Samkhya-Yoga Epistemology

Samkhya-Yoga Epistemology

  • SKU: IDI056
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  • Publishers: D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
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  • Dimensions:5.6'X 8.6'
  • Edition:2007
  • Author:Mukta Biswas
  • Publisher:D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
  • ISBN:9788124603710
  • Cover Type:Hardcover
  • Number of Pages:264
  • From the Jaiket

    The book present a comprehensive idea of the Samkhya-Yoga epistemology by examining in detail specific representative works including the Samkhyakarika of Isvarakrsna, Yogasutra of Patanjali, and Yuktidipika, Matharavrtti and other schools of Indian Philosophy.

    Beginning with some fundamentals like origin of the words 'Samkhya' and ' Yoga' it discusses important tenets of each system, their reference in the Upanisads, the definition of epistemology and its relation with ontology and logic. It delves into the two kinds of knowledge, direct ( Prama) and indirect (Pramana) as understood by the Samkhya-Yoga system and examines these concepts from the viewpoints of other philosophical school as will. It defines perception (Pratyaksa Pramana ) and inference (anumana) and critically assesses the understanding of these in defferent philosophical systems focusing on the Sankhya-Yoga interpretation. It also deals with the components of perception and inference along with the types and fallacies associated with them. Verbal testimony or Sabda is again treated in a detailed manner. The work examines aspects like the nature of word and logical structure of a sentence as well.

    The book will be useful for students and scholars of Indian philosophy who are keen to grasp the fundamentals of the Indian Philosophical systems even while gaining in- depth understanding of each school of ancient Indian Philosophy Particularly their interpretation of concepts of knowledge.


    About the Author:


    Dr. (Mrs) Mukta Biswas is a reader in the Department of Sanskrit, Gauhati University, Assam. She has authored a number of research papers on ancient Indian culture, Philosophy, literature and language. She has participated in numerous national seminars and conferences and has been honoured with gold medals for her scholarship. She is the winner of awards including Dr. V. Raghavan awards for best paper at the 42nd session of all India Oriental Conference held in Varanasi, 2004.



    In the present work I have made an endeavour to give a comprehensive and critical ideal of the Samkhya-Yoga epistemology. Epistemology of the Samkhya-Yoga school is a wide subject. However, a systematic approach on the subject has remained so for elusive. Tough early works explicitly declare that Knowledge of the objects depends upon the extant texts Samkhya - Yoga leaves behind an impression that this aspect has not been dealt with extensively and such an observation prompts us to take a view that the philosophers of both the schools were interested in metaphysical doctrines rather than being involved in the logical explanation of epistemology. It therefore becomes imperative to study the status of epistemology in Samkhya-Yoga philosophy. Thus the present work encompasses the studies of epistemology as evidenced in the works like Samkhyakarikaof Isvarakrsna, Yogasutra of Patanjali, Yuktidipika, Matharavrtti, and other schools of Indian philosophy. Efforts have been made to include the various judgements of the critics of Samkhya- Yoga system in order to bring out a critical analysis of the subject. However, I am aware of the possibility that the entire existing relevant documents on the subject might not have been incorporated in the present discussion despite best attempt. I am hopeful that this book will be of immense help for students and researchers to comprehend the idea of epistemology of Samkhya- Yoga thought in the proper perspective.

    I have no words to express my deep sense of gratitude to my teacher, professor Dr. Rajendra Nath Sarma, M.A., Ph. D., D. Lit, Mimamsa- Vyakarana Sastri, formerly Head of the deptt. of Sanskrit, Gauhati University for his ungrudging guidance and untiring help offered to me during the preparation of the work. Without his help, advice and supervision the work would have never come to completion.

    My acknowledgment would remain incomplete if I do not express my deep sense of indebtedness to my husband Dr. Ranjan Kumar Biswas who has been instrumental and chief inspirator in my taking up this course of study and has made possible to see it the light of the day.

    I am greatly thankful to Mr. Susheel K. Mittal of D. K. Printworld for kindly accepting the work for publication and evincing keen interest towards the completion of the work.


      Preface vii
      Key to Transliteration xv
      Abbreviations xvi
    1 Introduction 1
      The nature of Philosophy 1
      Two Broad Divisions of Indian Philosophy 3
      The Significance of Samkhya Philosophy and the Origin of the Word Samkhya 6
      Samkhya Literature 9
      Sastitantra- The Samkhyakarika- the Tattvasamasa -The Samkhyasutra- The Samkhyasara- The Samkhya- tattva- pradipa- The Samkhya- tattva- kaumudi- The Yuktidipika- Samkhyacandrika- Samkhyataruvasantah  
      Samkhya Teachers 15
      Kapila- Asuri- Pancasikha- Vindhyavasa- Varsaganya-Jaigisavya-Vodhu- Devala- The Rest  
      Samkhya System 20
      The Important Tenets of the Samkhya System 27
      The Significance of Yoga Philosophy 27
      Origin of the Word Yoga 28
      Yoga Literature 32
      The Yoga System 33
      The Important Tenets of the Yoga System 38
      The relation of Samkhya System with Yoga 38
      Reference of Samkhya and Yoga in the Upanisads 41
      Samkhya in the Upanisads 41
      Yoga in the Upanisads 42
      Some Appreciation of Samkhya and yoga System 44
      The nature of Knowledge 44
      Epistemology of the Samkhya -Yoga School 52
      What is Epistemology 52
      Place of Epistemology in Philosophy 53
      Epistemology and Ontology or Metaphysics 54
      Epistemology and Logic 55
    2 Valid and Invalid Knowledge 58
      Definitions of Valid Knowledge 59
      Buddha definition of valid knowledge 59
      The Nyaya View 60
      The Vedanta View 61
      The Bhatta Theory of Valid Knowledge 62
      The Prabhakara View 63
      The Vaisesika View 64
      The Jaina View 65
      The Samkhya- Yoga View 65
      The Sources of Valid Knowledge 67
      The Buddha View of Pramana 69
      The Jaina View of Pramana 70
      The Vaisesika View of Pramana 70
      The Nyaya View of Pramana 70
      The Bhatta View of Pramana 71
      The Prabhakara View of Pramana 72
      The Advaita View of Pramana 72
      The Samkhya- Yoga View of Pramana 73
      The Number of Pramanas According to Different Systems 80
      Forms of Invalid knowledge 83
      Asatkhyativada 91
      Atmakhyativada 92
      Anirvacaniyakhyati 93
      Satkhyativada 94
      Anyathakhyativada 95
      Sadasatkhyativada 96
      Memory (Smrit) 98
      Dream 100
      Doubt (Samsaya) 102
      Vikalpa 103
      Nidra (Sleep) 103
      Tarka(Hypothetical Argument) 105
      Reinculcation (Samvada) 106
    3 Perception (Pratyaksa Pramana) 107
      Different Opinions of Pratyaksa 109
      Carvaka view of Pratyaksa 109
      The Jaina View of Pratyaksa 111
      Buddha view of Pratyaksa 113
      The view of Advaita Vedanta 114
      Vaisesika view of Pratyaksa 115
      The Mimamsa view of Pratyaksa 116
      The Samkhya- Yoga view of Pratyaksa 117
      Role of Senses in Perception 125
      Function of the Senses 127
      Modes of Perception 129
      The Buddhist View 129
      The Grammarian's View 130
      The Majority View 131
      Internal Perception and Its Objects 138
      Recognition (Pratyabhijna) 140
      Non- Sensuous Perception in Philosophy 141
      The Nyaya Theory of Alaukika Pratyksa 142
      The Advaita Theory of Non- Sensuous Perception 143
      The Vaisesika View 144
      The Buddhist View of Yogi- Pratyaksa 145
      The Jaina View 145
      The Samkhya View 146
      The Supernormal Powers in Yoga System 146
      Theory of Perceptual Error 147
    4 Inference (Anumana) 151
      The Views of Anumana According to Different Systems 153
      The View of the Carvakas 153
      The Buddha View 154
      The Jaina View 155
      Nyaya View of Anumana 155
      Vaisesika View of Anumana 156
      Mimamsa View of Anumana 157
      Vedanta View 158
      Samkhya- Yoga View of Anumana 158
      Distinction Between Perception and Inference 161
      The Constituents of Inference 161
      The Ground of Inference 164
      Ascertainment of Vyapti 170
      The Carvaka View 170
      The Buddhist View 170
      The Jaina View 171
      The Vaisesika View 171
      The Bhatta View 171
      The Prabhakara View 171
      The Vedanta View 171
      The Nyaya View 172
      The Samkhya- Yoga View 172
      The Types of Anumana 173
      Purvavat, Sesavat and Samanyatodrsta 174
      Svartha and Parartha 178
      Kevalanyi, Kevalavyatireki and Anvayavyatireki 178
      Vita and Avita 179
      Fallacy 181
    5 Verbal Testimony (Sabda Pramana) 183
      The Denial of the Validity of the validity of the Verbal Testimony by the Carvakas 185
      Buddha View of Verbal Testimony 186
      The Vaisesika View of Verbal Testimony 187
      Establishment and the Nature of Verbal Testimony 188
      Jaina View of Verbal Testimony 188
      Mimamsa View of Verbal Testimony 189
      Vedanta View of Verbal Testimony 189
      Nyaya View of Verbal Testimony 190
      Samkhya-Yoga View of Verbal Testimony 192
      The Nature of Word 197
      Logical Structure of a Sentence 202
      Expectancy 202
      Compability 203
      Contiguity 204
      Purport 204
      Classification of Verbal Testimony 207
    6 Conclusion 210
      Upamana (Comparison) 211
      The Nyaya View of Upmana 212
      The Mimamsa View of Upmana 213
      Advaita View of Upmana 215
      The Samkhya Criticism of Upmana 216
      Arthapatti (Postulation) 218
      The Samkhya Criticism of Arthapatti 220
      Anupalabdhi (Non- Apprehension) 221
      The Mimamsa View of Anupalabdhi 222
      Advaita View of Anupalabdhi 223
      Sambhava (Probability) 226
      Aitihya (Tradition) 227
      Cesta (Gesture) 228
      Pratibha (Intuition) 229
      Bibliography 232
      Index 241


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