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Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Volume XII Yoga: India’s Philosophy of Meditation

Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Volume XII Yoga: India’s Philosophy of Meditation



  • Dimensions:9.8” X 6.8”
  • Edition:2011
  • Author:Gerald James Larson, and Ram Shankar Bhattacharya
  • Publisher:Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
  • ISBN:9788120833494
  • Cover Type:Hardcover
  • Number of Pages:784
  • From the Jacket

    The Volume Yoga: India’s Philosophy of Meditation, traces the intellectual history of Patanjala Yoga philosophy from the early centuries of the Common Era through the twentieth century. This volume also provides a systematic discussion of the philosophy of classical Yoga. Particular attention is given to the meaning of “concentration” (samadhi), “engrossment” (samapatti) and the “extraordinary cognitive capacities” (vibhutis, siddhis) and the role that these notions play in the Yoga philosophy, which are relevant for issues currently under discussion in contemporary western philosophy of mind. The volume as well compares and contrasts classical yoga philosophy with classical Samkhya and with Indian Buddhist thought. Although the primary focus of the volume is on Patanjala Yoga, the system of Hatha Yoga and other satellite systems of Yoga are discussed as well, and an attempt is made to differentiate clearly the classical system of Yoga Sastra from Hatha Yoga and the other satellite systems.

    Some twenty-eight Sanskrit texts of Patanjala Yoga are summarized or noted in the volume. Twenty-six volumes of Hatha Yoga and the texts of some other satellite systems are also included. Altogether the volume contains summaries and or notations for some seventy-five Sanskrit texts.

    Gerald James Larson is Rabindranath Tagore Professor Emeritus, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA, and Professor Emeritus, Religious Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara.

    Ramshankar Bhattacharya was editor of the journal, Purana, and for many years a member of the research division of the Sampurnananda Sanskrit University, Varanasi.


    There has been a long period of time between the publication of the Samkhya volume of the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies (Samkhya: A Dualist Tradition in Indian Philosophy, Volume IV) in 1987 and this sequel on Yoga. Nevertheless, in our view, the two volumes are best used in tandem, since Patanjala Yoga as a philosophical tradition is unintelligible without the Samkhya ontology and epistemology. As may be recalled from our earlier Samkhya volume, we are inclined to go even further and to claim that Yoga as a philosophical tradition is a particular form of Samkhya, namely Patanjala-Samkhya. The expression “…as a philosophical tradition,” of course, is a fundamental caveat, and this will be discussed at some length in the Introduction. It will be shown that although Yoga and Samkhya are by no means identical and that there are significant differences in the classical formulation of each system, the family resemblance is so striking that it is impossible to discuss one system apart from the other.

    I deeply regret that Dr. Ram Shankar Bhattacharya’s untimely death kept him from composing the Introduction to this volume on Yoga. He very much wanted to do the Introduction, since he viewed the philosophy of Yoga as an area of his primary scholarly interest through the years. His great erudition is to be found in his many critical editions of the Sanskrit texts of Yoga in the medium of Sanskrit. Also he wrote at least a brief summary of his views on Yoga in the medium of English in his book, An Introduction to the Yogasutra, already mentioned above in the foregoing In Memoriam.

    Two additional acknowledgment are also necessary. First, varieties of Yoga have become popular throughout the world, and this volume on Yoga of the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, if for no other reason than providing a summary overview, should at least touch upon these popular traditions. I would like to thank Ms. Autumn Jacobsen, a doctoral student in Religious Studies at the University of California at Santa Barbara, who wrote the final portion of the Introduction to this Volume, namely the section entitled “Contemporary Yoga Traditions”.

    Second, thanks to Richa Pauranik Clements, my doctoral student at Indiana University, Bloomington, who assisted me in the editing of many of the summaries.

    The bibliography on Yoga, of course, is vast, and we had to make difficult decisions about what to include and what not to include, both in terms of primary and secondary works. We hope that our selection, if not exhaustive, is at least representative of the most important texts. Also, it should be noted that we have divided the texts into two main groups, the Patanjala Yoga texts and what we have called “The Hatha Yoga System and Other Satellite Traditions of Yoga”. The dating of texts in the later centuries, of course, is nearly an impossible task, and it should be recognized that our attempts at dating are almost all only rough approximations.


    PREFACE 17
    The History and Literature of Yoga  
    The History of Yoga: Preliminary Remarks 21  
    Historiography on Yoga 30
    Early “samkhya” and “yoga” 33
    Samkhya and Yoga as System of Thought 36
    Samkhya, “sastitantra”, Varsaganya and Isvarakrsna 37
    Samkhya and Vindhyavasin 37
    Vindhyavasin and Vasubandhu 39
    Vindhyavasin and Vedavyasa 40
    Yoga, Samkhya and Buddhist Thought 42
    Yoga as a Hybrid System of Thought 44
    Yoga and Samkhya: The Important Differences 46
    Chronology of Yoga Philosophy-Principal Texts through Vijnanabhiksu 52
    Composition of the Yogasutra and the Identity of Patanjali 54
    Concluding Comments on the History of Yoga 67
    The Philosophy of Patanjala Yoga  
    The Philosophy of Yoga: Some Preliminary Methodological Remarks 70
    The Philosophy of Yoga: An Introductory Overview 75
    The Materialism of Yoga 78
    The Dualism of Yoga 86
    The Theism of Yoga 92
    Concentration (samadhi) 100
    The Yoga of Action (kriyayoga), and the Limbs of Yoga (yoganga) 116
    Comprehensive Reflection (samyama) and the Extraordinary Cognitive Capacities (vibhuti, siddhi) 120
    Spiritual Liberation (kaivalya) 133
    The Hatha Yoga System and Other Satellite/Sectarian Yoga Traditions in India  
    Hatha Yoga 139
    Pancaratras 143
    Pasupatas 143
    Kapalikas 144
    Kalamukhas 145
    Natha Siddhas, Kanphata Yogis, and the Kaula Cult 146
    Contemporary Yoga Movements (by Autumn Jacobsen)  
    The Yoga Tradition of the Mysore Palace 148
    Anusara Yoga 151
    Ashtanga Yoga 152
    Bikram Yoga 153
    Integral Yoga 154
    Iyengar Yoga 154
    Jivamukti Yoga 154
    Kundalini Yoga 155
    Kripalu Yoga 155
    Power Yoga 156
    Self-Realization Fellowship or Kriya Yoga 156
    Siddha Yoga 157
    Viniyoga 158
    Vinyasa Yoga 158
    White Lotus Yoga 159
    TEXTS: Patanjala Yoga Traditions  
    1. Patanjalayogasastra (Yogasutras, attributed to Patanjali) (c. 350-400) 161
    2. Patanjalayogasastrabhasya (Samkhyapravacana, attributed to Vedavyasa) (c.350-400) 184
    3. Tattvavaisaradi of Vacaspati Misra (c. 950) 218
    4. Patanjalayogasastravivarana or Patanjalayogasutra-bhasyavivarana, attributed to Samkara Bhagavatpada (c. 1050-1350) 239
    5. Kitab Patanjala or “The Book of Patanjali” of al-Biruni (c. 1050) 261
    6. Rajamartanda of Bhojadeva or Bhojaraja (c. 1050) 266
    7. Sarvadarsanasamgraha of Sayana Madhava (c. 1350) 282
    8. Maniprabha of Rarmananda Yati or Ramananda Sarasvati (c.1550-1600) 282
    9. Patanjalarahasya of Raghavananda Sarasvati (c.1550-1600) 294
    10. Yagavarttika of Vijnanabhiksu (c. 1550) 295
    11. Yogasarasamgraha of Vijnanabhiksu (c.1550) 320
    12. Pradipika of Bhavaganesa (c.1600-1700) 333
    13. Yogasiddhantacandrika of Naraya Tirtha (c.1600-1700) 334
    14. Sutrarthabodhini of Narayana Tirth (c.1600-1750) 353
    15. Brhativrtti of Narayana Tirtha (c.1600-1700) 353
    16. Laghuvrtti of Nagoji Bhatta or Nagesa (c.1700-1750) 355
    17. Yogasudhakara of Sadasivendra Sarasvati (c. 1700-1800) 356
    18. Yogacandrika of Anantadeva Pandita (c. 1800-1900) 359
    19. Rajayogabhasya of Samkaracarya (c.1890s) 361
    20. Yogabhasya of Balarama Udasina (c. 1890s) 366
    21. Vaidikavrtti of Svamin Hariprasada (c. 20th century) 367
    22. Sivoktayogayukti of Hariharananda Aranya (c. 20th century) 367
    23. Paribhakti of Hariharananda Aranya (c. 20th century) 369
    24. Yogakarika of Hariharananda Aranya (c. 20th century) 372
    25. Bhasvati of Hariharananda Aranya (c. 20th century) 379
    26. Yogapradipika of Baladeva Misra (c. 20th century) 396
    27. Kirana of Krsnavallabhacarya (c. 20th century) 403
    28. Jnananandabhasya of Jnanananda (c. 20th century) 406
    TEXTS: The Hatha Yoga System and Other Satellite Traditions of Yoga  
    29. Kaulajnananirnaya, attributed to Matsyendranatha (c. 900-950) 436
    30. Siddhasiddhantapaddhati, attributed to Goraksanatha (c. 100-1250)  
    31. Goraksasataka, attributed to Goraksanatha (c. 1200-1250) 455
    32. Goraksapaddhati attributed to Goraksanatha (c. 1000-1250) 464
    33. Yogabija, attributed to Goraksanatha (c.100-1250) 464
    34. Goraksasiddhantasamgraha, author unknown 470
    35. Siddhasiddhantapaddhati of Nityanatha (c.1000-1400) 476
    36. Yogayajnavalkya, author unknown (c.1200-1300) 476
    37. Hathayogapradipika of Svatmarama Yogin (c.1350-1400) 489
    38. Gherandasamhita, author unknown (c.1650-1700) 502
    39. Sivasamhita, author unknown (c.1650-1700) 506
    40. Satcakranirupana (6th chapter of Purnananda’s Sritattvacintamani) (c.1600-1700) 516
    41. Vasisisthasamhita, author unknown (c.160-1700) 521
    42. Satkarmasamgraha of Cidghananandanatha (c. 600-1700) 521
    43. Hatharatnavali of Srinivasabhatta (c. 1600-1700)  
    44. Hathasamketacandrika of Sundaradeva (c. 1850) 526
    45. Hathatattvakaumudi of Sundaradeva (c. 1850) 531
    46. Yogacintamani of Sivananda (c. 1850) 535
    47. Yogataranga of Devatirthasvamin (c. 1855) 543
    48. Jyotsna of Brahmananda (c. 1850-1900) 547
    49. Yogakarnika of Aghoranandanatha (c. 1905) 560
    50.Yogarahasya of Satyadeva (c. 1920) 561
    51. Brhadyogiyajnavalkya, author unknown (20th century) 568
    52. Yogataravali of Samkaracarya (c. 20th century) 574
    53. Pavanavijayasvarodaya, author unknown (c. 20th century) 576
    54. Uttaragita, author unknown (. 20th century) 583
    APPENDIX: Some additional texts  
    55. Yogavasistha, author unknown (c. 10th century) 589
    Yoga Upanisads (1200-1600)  
    56 Advayataraka 591
    57 Amrtanada 592
    58 Amrtabindu 593
    59 Ksurika 595
    60 Tejobindu 595
    61 Trisikhi 597
    62. Darsana 599
    63. Dhyanabindu 600
    64. Nadabindu 604
    65. Pasupatabrahma 606
    66. Brahmavidya 609
    67. Mandalabrahmana 611
    68. Mahavakya 614
    69. Yogakundali 615
    70. Yogacudamani 616
    71. Yogatattva 618
    72. Yogasikha 620
    73. Varaha 623
    74. Sandilya 626
    75. Hamsa 628
    END NOTES 631


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